The Residual World::Tag = 'Model'
Entries that have been tagged with 'Model'.-
by Maestoso on Sunday 31 January, 2010 - 10:56 GMT
ANSI/IEEE Std 1471 :: ISO/IEC 42010 - Recommended Practice for Architectural Description of Software-Intensive Systems
ISO/IEC42010:2007 states that ‘most architects must work within an architecture framework’ where this is defined as a predefined set of concerns, stakeholders, viewpoints and viewpoint correspondence rules; established to capture common practice for architecture descriptions within specific domains or user communities.
It controls architectural modelling at a high level by requiring architecture viewpoints that specify what concerns a particular view answers and what content a view must contain. It does not specify how the modelling is done or what presentation language must be used, for example UML, SysML, BPMN.
UPDATE. The re-issue of the standard as ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010:2011 changes the underlying conceptual metamodel in the standard. This is shown on ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010 website.
IEEE 1471 does not specify any particular one because it states that these are specific to the needs of a particular domain and there is not, as yet, any consensus on generic architecture frameworks.
In ISO 42010:2007 it specifies that an analysis be undertaken of the consistencies across the architectural views and any known inconsistencies be identified. Where does this consistency arise from, however, and what is the scope? It is perfectly possible for an architecture description comprising a set of models to be self-consistent. The problem is that another architect can choose to model using different object types and whilst again consistent the 2 architects will have produced 2 architecture descriptions that can’t easily be exchanged or re-used.
IEEE 1471 is evolving and not only has the name changed to better reflect the application of architecture modelling - ‘Systems and Software Engineering - Architecture Description’ [draft 7, 25th January 2010]. It also has more on architecture frameworks and states that
Correspondences and correspondence rules as specified in 5.7.2 and 5.7.3 may be used to express, record, enforce and analyze consistency between models, views and other AD elements.
IEEE 1471 is definitely heading in the right direction and provides useful principles and rules. Simply making a reference to IEEE 1471, however, is not sufficient in order to control architectural modelling to the level needed to be able to maximise the likelihood of success for the exchange of architecture descriptions (or models). Correspondence rules are necessary but there are potential problems with sets of text-based rules (this affects any requirement collection). A metamodel defines that only the allowed element types and relationships that can be used in a model or architecture description. In essence it provides the architect with a mandated language of nouns (element types) and verbs (relationships) to describe the system of interest. It is also visual and a very concise form of specification. There will always be the need for additional rules to specify consistency between views for the system of interest but having a metamodel is essential to a consistent set of building blocks from which to construct the views.
I’d argue strongly that having a declared metamodel is fundamental to defining an architecture framework and that without one you can’t hope to control consistency of modelling or meaning (semantics).
Even with a well-defined and controlled architecture framework there will be problems in exchanging architecture descriptions (and models) since modelling is a creative art providing many ways of modelling a particular thing and we have local or personal modelling styles. If we don’t share or have good access to a central set of definitions which includes elements and probably agreed boundaries (i.e. agreed understanding of the system breakdown structure) it is likely that elements will have different semantics.
IEEE 1471 is a good start and an architecture framework with a metamodel helps, but there is a lot more to put in place to be able to successfully exchange and collaboratively develop architecture descriptions (and models).
- Risk and Threats - The Common Ground Between Security and Safety? (20% )
- What Would a TRAK View Look Like in a Graph Database? Part 1 (20% )
- Definitions - What Exactly is a Risk? (10% )
- Definitions - What Exactly is a Risk Part 2? (10% )
- Solution Risk, Vulnerability, Threat and Mitigation - Does Risk Need to be Separate from Event? (10% )
by Nic Plum on Sunday 06 December, 2009 - 15:13 GMT
A demonstration or sample repository has been created (and is ongoing) with the following aims:-
- testing the framework out - is it capable of representing the types of thing and relationships/dependencies in the rail and other industries (TRAK is a generic framework)?
- testing the plugin for Sparx Systems’ Enterprise Architect - see also Sparx Systems
- developing the higher levels of a modelling repository - enterprise/capability, operational and the major projects and organisations
- providing a set of objects that can be re-used
- personal learning - interested to understand where everything fits
- example of modelling using the framework so that others can get a feel for types of views, contents and organisation of models for easy navigation/understanding [not easy!]
It contains a partial description of UK transport strategy together with elements of the technical research and regulation of the rail sector. It also contains views attempting to place the UK anti-/counter-terrorist (CONTEST) in context. It is a (slowly!) evolving thing.
The demo repository is at http://trak-community.org/TRAK_Demo_Repository/index.htm
- Risk and Threats - The Common Ground Between Security and Safety? (13% )
- Definitions - What Exactly is a Risk? (13% )
- Just When You Thought It Was Safe - EntiTy Returns (13% )
- What Would a TRAK View Look Like in a Graph Database? Part 1 (13% )
- Solution Risk, Vulnerability, Threat and Mitigation - Does Risk Need to be Separate from Event? (13% )
by Nic Plum on Monday 02 November, 2009 - 18:46 GMT
TRAK - The Rail Architecture Framework - is an architecture framework (Editor - ‘no kidding’?) that was born within London Underground Ltd. based on MODAF and hence also DODAF.
Like other architectural frameworks it provides a fixed grammar (objects and relationships) for representing the real world in architectural models - everything from the enterprise down to the technical products and interfaces. It also forms an interoperability or exchange standard to allow models to be exchanged with others.
It has it’s beginnings in proprietary attempts to establish standards for system architecture. Prior to this there were single views of purely physical architecture. Architectural views of the physical, functional and geographic architectures of the underground were developed and the relationships between views established.
A metamodel with a richer langauge for describing rail architecture was needed. There wasn’t any obvious architecture framework available within the rail industry that could describe systems other than computer or IT systems and after deliberation it was decided to adapt the MODAF metamodel for use within the rail domain.
The driving needs have been:-
- pragmatism - good enough / fit for purpose is all that’s needed
- recognition of hard and soft ‘systems’
- supportable by tools
The objectives in developing TRAK are:-
- Standardising the content and presentation of rail architecture views. At present different companies, different projects present diagrams that mix ideas and presentation and which have no means of checking for consistency. Typically they are on paper, difficult to maintain and each diagram represents a fresh start in terms of the objects, descriptions and relationships shown.
- Providing a standard for the exchange of architectural models of rail systems. There is no means to allow incorporation of the architecture represented on a diagram within another project or companies architecture.
- Enabling portability of architectural models of rail architecture. Diagrams are paper or CAD files. One is portable but not easily integrated, the second is portable very restricted in those who can use it.
- Collaboration. If models can be exchanged and re-used and standards define the component parts of the model then it becomes possible to collaborate.
- Providing the means to show interactions and dependencies between enterprise, project, operational and solution component parts i.e. a more complete systems engineering (holistic) view.
The thing is .. having set out to create an architecture framework for the rail community we stripped out all defence-specific concepts, added things to better represent systems and organisations and have ended up with something that is generic. This shouldn’t have been a surprise - a system is a system and it doesn’t know whether it’s in rail or telecomms nor whether it is a hard or soft system.
- What Would a TRAK View Look Like in a Graph Database? Part 1 (22% )
- Solution Risk, Vulnerability, Threat and Mitigation - Does Risk Need to be Separate from Event? (22% )
- Just When You Thought It Was Safe - EntiTy Returns (11% )
- MODAF is Dead - Long Live ‘NAF’? (11% )
- Definitions - What Exactly is a Risk Part 2? (11% )